Inorganic Photovoltaic Devices

Pioneer in silicon photovoltaics: Materials to Device………1974 onwards

Silicon Solar Cells Group at CSIR-NPL is the oldest photovoltaic group and has very rich history in silicon based photovoltaics since last four decades. We were the first to develop silicon solar cells in the country in around mid 70’s. CSIR-NPL is the first laboratory to demonstrate the complete process ‘from metallurgical grade silicon to solar grade poly silicon, fabrication of solar cells and solar penal running a water pump.

Raw Material

Slim Silicon Rod

CVD Reactor

Small Water pump run by solar penal, 1980


Dr. P.K. Singh
Phone: +91-4572-1078

Research Activities

Currently, the group is actively involved in CSIR Energy Program ‘Technologies And Products for Solar Energy Utilization through Networks (TAPSUN)’ for the improvement of silicon solar cell efficiency to make silicon photovoltaic economically viable. The group has following prime aims for the improvement of crystalline silicon solar cell efficiency.

  • Emitter engineering using selective emitter concept for silicon solar cells,
  • Surface passivation schemes to reduce the surface recombination velocity,
  • Surface modification schemes to reduce reflection losses,
  • Metal contacts improvement;

Besides, the group is also involved in test and measurement of the photovoltaic devices. It has expertise and knowledge in fabrication, measurements, characterization, and theory to support photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R&D).

Current R&D highlights


The group is well equipped with several state of the art facilities for crystalline silicon solar cell fabrication and PV materials and device characterization.

A. Silicon solar cells processing:

B. Test & Measurement of PV devices:




Mr. C.M.S. Rauthan, Chief Scientist


Dr. Sanjay Kumar Srivastava, Senior Scientist
Dr. Vandana, Senior Scientist
Dr. P. Prathap, Scientist

Technical Support:

Ms. Subha Laxmi, Technical Officer


Silicon Thin Film Photovoltaic

 Contact details of activity leader:

Dr. Sushil Kumar 
CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, 
Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi-110012, INDIA. 
Ph. 91-11-45608650, Fax: 91-11-45609310 


Scientist & Technical Staff:

  • Dr. Sushil Kumar, Principal Scientist
  • Mr. Kamlesh Patel, Scientist
  • Dr. S. Sudhakar, Scientist
  • Ms. Kaplana Lodhi, Technical Assistant
  • Mr. Prasun Bhowal, Technical Assistant

Research Students:

  • Neeraj Dwivedi, (SRF)
  • Ms. Sucheta Juneja (PA)
  • Ms. Mansi Sharma (JRF)
  • Mr. Ajay Kumar Gupta (PA)

Photograph: Silicon Thin Film Photovoltaic team

Research: Summary of the research activity, key topics 


The group has several deposition systems and in-house characterization facilities. We have two plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) systems for deposition of amorphous & micro/nano-crystalline silicon films: (a) Single Chamber & (b) Multi-chamber PECVD systems and also sputtering & thermal evaporation systems for deposition of metallic & other layers for solar cells. The group has various characterization facilities such as IV-CV, temperature dependent dark & photo conductivities, solar simulator, stylus based thickness profilometer, stress measurement setup, laser Raman, photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS) & constant photocurrent method (CPM) etc.

Deposition system:

Multi-chamber PECVD system

Characterization facilities:

Amorphous & Microcrystalline silicon thin film deposition and solar cell fabrication

Simulation work for efficient solar cells

Diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films for solar cells application:

Some recent patents & publications

Section # Inorganic Photovoltaic Devices

DP leader
Mr. CMS Rauthan
Chief Scientist