Ph. D. Program



PHY(NPL)-1-4605: Research Methodology, Technical Writing & Communication Skills: 1-1-0-2 Course Coordinator: Dr. Ranjana Mehrotra , Dr. Rina Sharma,
& Dr. S. K. Dhawan

Introduction, Research terminology and scientific methods, different types and styles of research, role of serendipity, creativity and innovation, Scientific and critical reasoning skills, art of reading and understanding scientific papers, literature survey. Measurements in research - primary and secondary data. Quantitative methods and data analysis, Qualitative analysis, communicating research results. Designing and implementing a research project. Ethics in research, Plagiarism, Case studies. Laboratory safety issues – lab, workshop, electrical, health & fire safety, safe disposal of hazardous materials. Role and importance of communication, Effective oral and written communication. Technical report writing, Technical/R&D proposals, Research paper writing, Dissertation/Thesis writing, Letter writing and official correspondence. Oral communication in meetings, seminars, group discussions; Use of modern aids; Making technical presentations.

PHY(NPL)-4-4606: Advanced Measurement Techniques & Metrology: 2-1-0-3 Course Coordinator: Dr. V. N. Ojha, Dr. Parag Sharma & Mr. S. K. Jaiswal

Introduction of the measurement science, measurement terminology and vocabulary, basics of uncertainty in measurements, brief advance uncertainty analysis including uncorrelated and correlated measurand, accurate measurement techniques in basic and derived SI units like mass, temperature, length & dimension, pressure & vacuum, force, DC (voltage, resistance & current), AC (high voltage & current, power & energy), LF voltage & current, introduction to quantum SI, quantum definition of mass, e-mass by superconducting magnetic levitation, watt balance, I2 stabilized HeNe Laser, Michelson interferometer – principle theory and application, different kinds of interferometer and applications, primary laser and its importance in metrology as a standard, basics of radiometry, radiometric quantities, radiant quantities, realization of radiometry to SI, calibration for spectral irradiance responsivity, high temperature by radiation pyrometry, measurement of Boltzmann constant ‘k', Josephson voltage standard, quantum hall effect, time and frequency standards, laser cooled cesium fountain, metrology instruments - standards and artifacts for key comparison, introduction to the international organizations BIPM, RMO (APMP, SIM, EORAMET etc.), OIML, ILAC, international data base – key comparison data base (KCDB), calibration measurement capabilities (CMCs), ISO/IEC 17025: 2005 quality system and conformity assessment and their use in support of technical regulations.

PHY(NPL)-3-4607: Advanced Computational Physics: 2-0-2-4 Course Coordinator: Dr. Ji. Ji. Pulikkotil , Mr. Ashish Ranjan, Dr. Sumit K. Mishra & Ms. Deepti Chadhha

Introduction to computer problem solving techniques, design and anatomy of a computer program, programming in C. Modeling of Data : least square methods, finite difference methods, numerical differentiation and integration, interpolation and extrapolation, statistical analysis Numerical Methods : root finding, eigen systems, FFT, ordinary differential equations and boundary value problems, Runge-Kutta and predictor corrector methods, partial differential equations Simulations : molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo methods.

PHY(NPL)-4-4609: Superconductivity and Magnetic Materials: 2-1-0-3 Course Coordinator: Dr. Anurag Gupta , Dr. V. P. S. Awana & Ms. Sandhya M. Patel

Introduction to superconductivity; thermodynamics of superconducting transition, two-fluid model London theory, flux-quantization, superconducting tunneling phenomena and energy gap, introduction to microscopic theory (Bardeen-CooperSchrieffer) of superconductivity. Type II superconductivity, mixed state and Ginzburg-Landau theory, critical currents, flux-pinning and flux-flow. Magnetothermal instabilities in type II superconductors. Applications of Superconductivity : materials requirement for superconducting devices, low current devices and superconducting electronics, superconducting thin films, SQUIDs and Josephson junction based devices, detectors and bolometers. High current applications, synthesis methods for wires and tape-conductors, superconducting magnets, energy storage, motors and generators. High Temperature superconductors : introduction & their unusual fundamental properties, electronic and power applications of hightemperature superconductors. Physical Properties of materials at low temperatures (specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, electrical conductivity, magnetic and mechanical properties). Production of low temperatures, cryogenic fluids: their properties and storage, transfer devices, temperature control & measurement, production of very low temperatures, vacuum systems as applied to cryogenics. Magnetic moments of a body, alignment of atomic magnetic moments in a solid, Ferromagnetism, Curie Point and the Exchange Integral, Magnetisation and magnetic domains, Temperature dependence of magnetization, Coercive force and hysteresis,coercivity in fine particles. Ferrimagnetism and Antiferromagnetic order, Neutron magnetic scattering Magnetism of transition metals (elements, alloys and compounds), Rare-earths and Special Oxides (Spinels, Garnets and Perovskites). Magneto-resistance, tunnel magnetoresistance, Spintronics.

Fundamentals of Electronic Materials & Semiconductor Devices (2-1-0-3 ) Course Faculty: Dr. Shailesh Narain Sharma, Dr. Manas Dalai,
Dr. Pankaj Kumar & Dr. Sanjay Kumar Srivastava

Crystal structure and reciprocal lattice, crystal binding, phonons & thermal conductivity, free electron Fermi gas, energy band diagrams and Fermi surfaces, semiconductor crystals, plasmons-polaritons-polarons, optical properties and excitons, nanocrystalline solids, phase change materials, ferroelectrics and dielectrics, basic equations of semiconductor device operation, p-n junction diode, metal-semiconductor contacts, MOSFETS, LEDs and semiconductor laser, solar cell.

Physics & Technology of Thin Films (2-1-0-3 ) Course Faculty: Dr. K. M. K. Srivats, Dr. Sushil Kumar & Dr. Govind

Vacuum science & technology for thin film processing; thin films growth mechanisms, kinetic models of nucleation; thin film deposition techniques: physical vapor deposition (PVD): evaporation (resistive heating, flash, electron beam, ion beam and pulsed laser), sputtering (mechanisms and yield, dc and rf sputtering, bias sputtering, magnetron sputtering), hybrid and modified PVD, ion plating, ion beam assisted deposition, and vacuum arc deposition; chemical vapor deposition (CVD): reaction chemistry and thermodynamics of CVD, thermal CVD, atmospheric and low pressure CVD, plasma enhanced CVD (PECVD), MOCVD etc.; Chemical techniques: spray pyrolysis, electro deposition, sol-gel and Langmuir Blodgett techniques; types of thin films: metallic, dielectric & semiconducting; optical coating, thin film measurement & characterization, thickness measurements: Fizeau fringes, stylus measurement, ellipsometer etc.; ultra-high vacuum techniques and processes; electron-based techniques for examining surface and thin film processes. Surface processes in adsorption, surface processes in epitaxial growth, electronic structure and emission processes at metallic surfaces; semiconductor surfaces and interfaces; surface processes in thin film devices; in-situ characterization of epitaxial films. Defects in epitaxial films, epitaxial growth of nanostructures on silicon surfaces, graphene, III-V nitride quantum well structures for LED & Solar cells applications.

Advanced Materials Characterization Techniques (2-1-0-3 ) Course Faculty: Dr. A. K. Srivastava, Dr. Rajana Mehrotra, Dr. K. K. Maurya & Dr. N. Vijayan

Fundamentals of X-rays - Bremsstrahlung and characteristic X-rays, Moseley's law, X-ray production (conventional X-ray tubes and synchrotron), X-ray absorption/Kabsorption edge/filters ; X-ray crystallography, crystal systems and their corresponding Bravais lattices, space groups, reciprocal lattice, lattice planes and Miller indices, relation between lattice spacing and lattice constants, Bragg's Law, scattering of X-rays by an electron and an isolated atom and atomic structure factor, structure factor for unit cell, calculation of structure factor, X-ray scattering and systematic absences in a few crystal systems ; X-ray analysis for composition and trace elements or impurities - X-ray florescence spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, CHN analyzer ; determination of crystal structures - X-ray Laue, single crystal X-ray and powder X-ray methods. Characterization of crystalline perfection of single crystals & epitaxial films - crystal defects and lattice mismatch, theoretical aspects of X-ray diffraction, reflection and scattering, high resolution X-ray Diffraction for Bragg and Laue cases, semikinematical theory for epitaxial layers for determination of thickness and composition, X-ray reflectometry for determination of density, thickness and interfacial roughness ; experimental aspects - monochromators, point and line focus configurations of X-ray beam, parabolic graded multilayer mirror, flow proportional and scintillation detectors, solid-state pixel detector ; high-resolution X-ray diffractometers - highresolution X-ray diffraction curves, X-ray topography, X-ray reflectometry, grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry for in-plane diffraction, reciprocal space mapping. Microscopy Techniques - basics of electron microscopy, electron scattering, electron atom interaction, electron emissions sources, vacuum conditions, scanning electron microscopy, different imaging modes, conventional transmission electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, reciprocal space, selected area electron diffraction, convergent beam electron diffraction, bright field and dark field imaging, scanning transmission electron microscopy, lattice scale imaging, interpretation of high resolution images, scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy. Spectroscopy techniques - Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, cathodoluminescence, photoluminescence, defect structure analysis using microscopy and spectroscopy results; particle size analyzer.

Nanostructured Materials (2-1-0-3) Course Faculty: Dr. A. K. Srivastava, Dr. H. K. Singh, Dr. D. Haranath

Introduction to nanomaterials, nanoparticles employing ball milling, gas condensation, laser ablation, thermal and ultrasonic decomposition, reduction methods, self-assembly, low-temperature plasma, thermal high-speed spray, sol gels, precipitation of quantum dots and other procedures; nanolayers by physical vapor deposition methods, PLD, sputtering, e-beam evaporation, MBE; Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD); nanostructuring by nanopolishing, etching of nanostructures, lithography procedures like optical lithography, electron beam lithography, ion beam lithography, X-ray and synchrotron lithography, focused ion beams, nanoimprinting, atomic force, near-field optics. Characterization of nanomaterials for the structure, composition, defects, interfaces, grain boundaries. Generation, interpretation & application of nano-scaled defects. Physics at low dimensions, heterostructures, band engineering, quantum wires, quantum dots, effective mass approximation, quantum wells in heterostructures, square well of finite and infinite width, triangular and parabolic quantum wells, tunneling transport, potential step, T-matrices, current and conductance, resonant tunneling, tunneling in heterostructures, effects of electric and magnetic fields, density of states, conductivity and resistivity tensors, uniform magnetic field, Landau levels, S-D effect, quantum hall effect, Aharanov-Bohm effect, nanomagnetism, surface/interface magnetism, nanophotonics. Electronic devices based on nanostructures, high electron mobility transistors, resonant tunneling diode, quantum cascade laser, single electron transistor, carbon nanotube and graphene devices and spintronic devices.

Quantum Optics & Advanced Solid State Optical Devices (2- 1-0-3) Course Faculty: Dr. Subhashish Panja, Dr. Subhadeep De, Dr. V. K. Jaiswal & Dr. Parag Sharma

Introduction to quantum mechanics - quantum theory and wave nature of matter, complementarity, wave function and its interpretation, wave packets and free particle motion, principle of superposition, wave packets and uncertainty relation, spreading of wavepackets ; wave equations and solutions - linear harmonic oscillator, eigen value and eigen functions, motion of wave packets, double oscillator ; different types of potentials - normalization of free particle wave function, potential steps, rectangular potential barrier, periodic potential, potential square well ; coherence theory - classical coherence, quantum coherence ; semiconductor photon sources and detectors - light emitting diodes, laser amplifiers and injection lasers, photodetectors, photoconductors, photodiodes and avalanche photodiodes, single photon detectors ; theory of photoelectric detection of light - differential photodetection probability, joint probability of multiple photodetection, integral detection probabilities, photoelectric detection in a fluctuating field – photoelectric bunching, photoelectric counting statistics of a fluctuating field, photoelectric current fluctuations, Hanburry Brown – Twiss effect – photon antibunching. Introduction to time and frequency standards including historical perspectives. Basic concepts of frequency standards, macroscopic frequency sources. Basics of laser frequency standards. Characterization of noise processes – amplitude and phase noise. Statistical characterization of the noise processes. Measurement techniques of phase and frequency noise. Introduction to atomic frequency standards, primary and secondary frequency standards. Microwave atomic frequency standards such as H-maser, Rb cell standards, cesium beam standards. Sources of frequency biases and their evaluation. Physics of cold atoms – laser cooling and trapping. Optical Molasses and magneto optic traps. Polarization gradient cooling. Bose Einstein condensation. Atomic Fountain frequency standards based on cold atoms. Cesium fountain frequency standard. Evaluation of sources of frequency biases. Ion trap frequency standards. Realization of different types of traps. Microwave and optical frequency standards based on trapped ions. Synthesis and translation of optical frequencies including femto-second comb, applications of precision frequency standards.

Engineering Materials (2-1-0-3) Course Faculty: Dr. T. D. Senguttuvan, Dr. B. P. Singh, & Dr. B. Sivaiah

Classification of engineering materials, material properties, selection of material, advanced and futuristic materials, smart materials, nanomaterials; phase diagram, equilibrium & kinetics, stable & metastable phases, nucleation and growth, metals, alloys and solid-solutions; ceramics, polymers, composites; crystal imperfections, defects, dislocations; elastic and plastic deformation, stress-strain curves, work hardening & dynamic recovery, strengthening mechanisms; solidification and crystallization, recovery, recrystallization and grain growth; creep, fatigue, fracture, oxidation and corrosion; materials processing techniques : liquid metallurgy, powder metallurgy, spray forming; secondary processing techniques : extrusion, forging, rolling; mechanical and metallurgical characterization, structure-property correlations; light weight materials, metal matrix composites, polymer matrix composites, ceramic matrix composites, carbon-based composites, nanocomposites, super-hard materials, dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials, magnetic materials

PHY(NPL)-4-4612 : Advanced Self Study on Special topic: 0-0-0-4 Course Coordinator: Senior Scientists, Doctoral Advisory Committee

This will involve reading from published research literature or books about new frontiers on a specific scientific topic related to the field of research. A report needs to be submitted and a seminar on the special topic needs to be presented. PHY(NPL)-4-001 CSIR-800 Societal program : 0-0-0-8 Course Coordinator: Concerned Supervisor & Dr. Ajay Dhar The students have to undertake a 6-8 weeks project concerned with societal/rural issues in line with CSIR-800 Program. The CSIR-800 program is primarily prepared at empowering 800 million Indians by way of S & T inventions. The theme for the project may be chosen from the CSIR-800 document and Science Plan for Physical, Chemical and engineering based projects. The project should aim towards the underprivileged, which have fewer opportunities to lead better life in the villages, and bring out solutions in the area of health, agriculture, environment, energy etc. The student will choose the topic in consultation with his Doctoral Advisory Committee (DAC). This course will need to be completed before the submission of the PhD thesis.

PHY(NPL)-1-4613 : Seminar Participation: 0-1-0-1

Seminar Participation 0-1-0-1 1 credit each Course Objective Provide exposure to current research and societal activities through talks by eminent scientists and other speakers. Students will be required to attend approximately 8 talks every semester.

PHY(NPL)-3-4621: Project Proposal : 0-0-0-2 Course Coordinator: Concerned Supervisor & Dr. Ajay Dhar

This course is aimed to prepare the students for effective project proposal writing and involves, definition and elements of a scientific proposal, statement of scientific problem, purpose and identifying the sponsors, background information and present status, state-of-the-art review, novelty, goals and objectives, deliverables, methodologies & detailed work plan, time schedule, budget, monitoring & evaluation and references. The project proposal should be concise, highlighting all the above mentioned points under separate headings. The topics of the project proposal should have high relevance and novelty. This course is to be completed during the residency period before the comprehensive. One Project Proposal to be prepared by selecting topics of high relevance and novelty, and will have state-of-the art review, methodologies, recommendations etc.. The suggested format of the proposal is similar to the format of the projects funded under CSIR- Extra Mural Research scheme

PHY(NPL)-4-4622: Review Article : 0-0-0-2 Course Coordinator: Concerned Supervisor & Dr. Ajay Dhar

One Review Article on the research area undertaken by the student (2 credits)

PHY(NPL)-4-4623 CSIR-800 Societal program : 0-0-0-4 Course Coordinator: Concerned Supervisor & Dr. Ajay Dhar

The students have to undertake a 6-8 weeks project concerned with societal/rural issues in line with CSIR-800 Program. The CSIR-800 program is primarily prepared at empowering 800 million Indians by way of S & T inventions. The theme for the project may be chosen from the CSIR-800 document and Science Plan for Physical, Chemical and engineering based projects. The project should aim towards the underprivileged, who have fewer opportunities to lead better life in the villages, and bring out solutions in the area of health, agriculture, environment, energy etc. The student will choose the topic in consultation with his Doctoral Advisory Committee (DAC). This course will need to be completed before the submission of the PhD thesis.